Saturday, March 14, 2020
20 Descriptive Essay Topics What to Write about Canadian Food Writing a descriptive essay about something you are not exactly an expert on is never easy. It becomes even more difficult when you are free to choose any topic within the confines of a general theme Ã¢â¬â your knowledge is insufficient to choose anything in particular as you simply have no idea what to choose from. So, if you have to write a descriptive essay about Canadian cuisine, feel free to use these topics weÃ¢â¬â¢ve prepared for you: Poutine Ã¢â¬â an Artery-Clogging Delight of Canadian Cuisine Maple Syrup as the Basic Symbol of Canadian Culture Canadian Ice Wine and Why It Is So Special BeaverTails Ã¢â¬â Pastry Celebrating Canadian National Animal Newfoundland Cod Tongues Ã¢â¬â Refuse Turned Delicacy Pemmican Ã¢â¬â the Precursor of Modern Protein Bars Butter Tart Ã¢â¬â the Most Canadian Dessert in Canada Ice Beer Ã¢â¬â the Canadian Contribution to the World of Brewing Tourtiere Ã¢â¬â Traditional French-Canadian Dish Donairs Ã¢â¬â Middle-Eastern Food Turned Canadian The Disputed Origins of Nanaimo Bar Bloody Caesar Ã¢â¬â CanadaÃ¢â¬â¢s National Cocktail Traditional Cuisine of the First Nations Montreal-Style Bagel Ã¢â¬â Jewish Contribution to Canadian Cuisine Fiddleheads and The Ways They Are Prepared in Canada Acadian Rappie Pie and Its Origins Fish and Brewis Ã¢â¬â Traditional Newfoundland Delicacy Garlic Fingers as a Canadian Take on Pizza Tiger Tail Ice cream Ã¢â¬â Ubiquitous Canadian Licorice Dessert Flapper Pie as a Staple of Canadian Prairie Culture A Sample Descriptive Essay on Poutine Ã¢â¬â an Artery-Clogging Delight of Canadian Cuisine If you ask a resident of Canada which dish he or she considers the most iconic for the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s cuisine, chances are that you will be sent to the closest poutine place to give a try to this peculiar dish, not very well known outside of Canada. Poutine all by itself makes a meal that would horrify any advocate of healthy lifestyle Ã¢â¬â Canadians laughingly admit that it is a dish that is extremely prone to sticking to your ribs. Your basic poutine consists of French fries, fresh cheese curds and special, usually sweetened gravy-like sauce used to keep the rest of the dish hot longer. This, however, is just a basic recipe Ã¢â¬â different regions, restaurants and communities have their own variants of poutine, ranging from fast-food to haute-cuisine variations introducing delicacies like merguez sausage, foie gras and sometimes even truffles and caviar. And even these donÃ¢â¬â¢t mark the limitations of culinary weirdness associated with poutine Ã¢â¬â some chefs are known to throw bacon, maple syrup, deep-fried Kit-Kat bars, marshmallows, chocolate ganache and/or ice-cream into the mix, producing a truly mind-boggling and bowel-curdling experience. As is clearly seen, even without resorting to this kind of culinary atrocities poutine is an extremely versatile dish, capable of using many different ingredients in many different combinations. There is no consensus on where poutine comes from, who its inventor was and what exactly its name means, despite the fact that the dish is a relatively young one Ã¢â¬â most food historians agree that it appeared around 1950s. The exact story of its appearance differs from account to account. According to one version, the word Ã¢â¬ËpoutineÃ¢â¬â¢ derives from a Quebecois slang term meaning Ã¢â¬ËmessÃ¢â¬â¢, and the dish itself appeared when a restaurateur from Warwick, Fernand Lachance, was asked by a cafÃ © regular to put cheese curds on his French fries and exclaimed in exasperation that it will make a damn mess (poutine). Another version of the wordÃ¢â¬â¢s etymology claims that Ã¢â¬ËpoutineÃ¢â¬â¢ is a gallicization of the English word Ã¢â¬ËpuddingÃ¢â¬â¢, which supposedly was used in Canada to define a mixture (usually unappetizing) of different foods. However, it seems that too much times elapsed since then to make declare any of these theories true with any degree of certainty. Despite its rather unassuming name, poutine is extremely popular throughout Canada, and at least three different regions of the country claim to be its birthplace: Drummondville, Victoriaville and Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu. However, there is still a possibility that this most Canadian of all Canadian dishes may be not entirely local in origin and was derived from or at least inspired by a remarkably similar dish popular in the north of England, Scotland and in the Isle of Man, called Ã¢â¬Ëchips, cheese and gravyÃ¢â¬â¢. It was well-known in the UK some fifty years before the emergence of poutine, although grated cheddar was used instead of cheese curds and gravy was sometimes replaced by curry sauce. Nevertheless, you should better keep this theory to yourself when discussing poutine with the Canadians, since they often find immense pride in their national dish despite good-humoredly acknowledging that it is probably not the healthiest of foods. All in all, poutine is among those dishes that inexplicably rise from obscurity to become staples of national diet and produce horrified fascination in foreigners. It is equally widespread and accepted in fast food joints and upscale restaurants and, together with maple sauce, butter tarts and Nanaimo bars, has become an integral part of local food culture. References Albaba, Ken. Food Cultures of the World Encyclopedia. Santa-Barbara, California, 2011. Print Cooke, Nathalie. WhatÃ¢â¬â¢s to Eat? EntrÃ ©es in Canadian Food History. Montreal, Canada: McGill-QueenÃ¢â¬â¢s University Press, 2009. Print Dojny, Brooke. New England Home Cooking: 350 recipes from town and country, land and sea, hearth and home. Boston, Mass: Harvard Common Press, 1999. Print Miller, Marissa. Ã¢â¬Å"In Montreal, A Week for PoutineÃ¢â¬ . The New York Times. Jan. 29 2015 Morton, Mark. Cupboard Love: A Dictionary of Culinary Curiosities. Toronto, Canada: Insomniac Press, 2004. Print Kittler, Pamela Goyan, Kathryn Sucker. Food and Culture. Boston, Massachusetts: Cengage Learning, 2007. Print Sinclair, Charles G. International Dictionary of Food Cooking. Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn. Print
Wednesday, February 26, 2020
The Apology of Socrates - Research Paper Example It is often said that Socrates acted unwisely in this defense and prior to the charges being brought against him because he purposely incited the wrath of many of the more powerful people of Athens. However, the defense he presents to the court suggests Socrates understood something more than normal men. His argument in the end is not that he didnÃ¢â¬â¢t break the law of Athens, but that he was acting in a necessary capacity for the development of the free and democratic society he understood Athens to be. The first charge brought against Socrates was that he was spreading sacrilegious ideas because he challenges other peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s beliefs. Socrates acknowledges these charges when he speaks against old enemies that have spoken falsely Ã¢â¬Å"telling of one Socrates, a wise man, who speculated about the heaven above, and searched into the earth beneath, and made the worse appear the better causeÃ¢â¬ (Apology: 944). His defense regarding sacrilege is based on the statement of the Oracle which once pronounced him the wisest man alive. Such a pronouncement caused him to take up a series of inquiries looking Ã¢â¬Ëinto the heavens and earthÃ¢â¬â¢ to discover why that might be so. He points out this was a journey of discovery to learn why what they said was true. Ã¢â¬Å"At last I went to the artisans, for I was conscious that I knew nothing at all, as I may say, and I was sure that they knew many fine things; and here I was not mistaken, for they did know many things of which I was ignorant, and in this they certainly were wiser than I was. But I observed that even the good artisans fell into the same error as the poets; because they were good workmen they thought that they also knew all sorts of high matters, and this defect in them overshadowed their wisdomÃ¢â¬ (Apology: 947). Villa says this reveals that Socrates Ã¢â¬Å"obviously cared greatly for his city and fellow citizensÃ¢â¬ (2001: 39). His method was intended to open their minds to greater thought within a
Monday, February 10, 2020
New procedure that physicians would like to adapt in the hospital - Essay Example First, a new process must follow the ANA Standards of Practice and the Nurse Practice Act. Further, the process should uphold the rights of patients and also be safe. Second, the new procedure must be backed by relevant nursing theories and literature. The process must have a backing of conclusive information and data from reputable health sources like the nursing organizations. Having this would ensure that the procedure is based on evidence. The third step in determining the scope of the new process would be to evaluate the professional opinions of other nurses with similar professional training. The point implies that other nurses should propose such a process or approve it in case they are in a situation that it can be applied. According to the Texas Board of Nursing (n.d), nurses are supposed to follow Ã¢â¬Ëstandard care practiceÃ¢â¬â¢ in dealing with emerging situations. A new process must have a nursing remedy in case of further complications as a result of the new practice. Nurses should be in a position to accept any repercussion that emanate from the new process. Before following the new practice, the nurses must first determine the consequences and the applicable laws, should they violate the safe care doctrine. Introducing a new process to fellow practitioners and physicians is a tricky process. The initial step is to educate the physicians and the nurses about the rationale and the reasons for adopting the new practice and get their initial response towards the new process. When the concerned parties are in agreement about a new process, then implementation becomes easier. The physicians and nurses should be assured that the practice does not violate the professional terms that they all subscribe to. An awareness program should be created to educate the health practitioners on the specifics of the practice and the desired outcomes. It is important to educate them on the new practice since it does not exist in the current nursing
Thursday, January 30, 2020
Critical Review of the Literature of the role that Dietary Factors Play in Preventing Type 2 Diabetes Essay Example for Free
Critical Review of the Literature of the role that Dietary Factors Play in Preventing Type 2 Diabetes Essay Critical Review of the Literature of the role that Dietary Factors Play in Preventing Type 2 DiabetesÃ¢â¬â¢ Introduction Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) is a rapidly growing international public health issue. It has been reported that 285 million 20Ã¢â¬â79 year olds had the disease in 2010 worldwide and this is estimated to grow to 439 million by 2030. (19) T2D has been associated with a variety of other health problems such as cardiovascular disease, blindness and shortened life expectancy. (4,40) The prevalence of the disease is associated with obesity and overweight as well as a Ã¢â¬ËWesternÃ¢â¬â¢ dietary pattern and lack of exercise. (17) It has been reported that approximately 80% of people who develop T2D are obese or overweight prior to diagnosis.(8) Diabetes is a preventable disease, (19) with weight loss being identified as one of the most powerful interventions. (4) Diet and physical activity (PA) are effective interventions in attaining this (25) and have also been linked with reduction in risk independently. (40) The primary focus of this paper will look at diet and review the evidence on whether diet alone can help to prevent T2D. As a secondary theme it will also look at the evidence that diet can help to prevent the development of and help to control symptoms after T2D has been diagnosed. 8 papers will reviewed, (26-33) with a purpose of identifying some practical, evidence based dietary guidelines. Dietary guidelines are easier to follow when they indicate specific foods and patterns rather than nutrients and properties of foods and greater compliance can be achieved . (29,31) For this reason the studies reviewed focus on specific foods and diet styles rather than macronutrients and or micronutrients which do not translate into dietary guidelines as easily. Literature Search A literature review using the following databases was carried out; Pubmed, Web of Science, Embase, CINAHL, British Nursing Index and Medline. The following keywords were used in various combinations; Diet, prevention, food, T2D, interventions, dietary, fruit, vegetables, nutrition. Other resources such as Ã¢â¬ËGoogle scholarÃ¢â¬â¢ and NHS Choices Ã¢â¬Ëbehind the headlinesÃ¢â¬â¢ were also utilised. Because T2D is an international issue, papers from around the world were considered. The criteria for inclusion was less than 10 years old, the intervention had to be a specific food group or diet style, measuring new incidents of T2D, or changes is symptoms associated with T2D and adults as the sample group. Diet as a tool to prevent T2D 6 Studies looked at whether diet can prevent T2D. Please refer to Table 1 for details of all the studies. Villegas et al (26) and Bazzano et al (27) looked at fruit, vegetable and fruit juices consumption and fruit and vegetable consumption respectively. Both of the studies used women only in their sample groups, limiting the generalizability of the findings to the wider population. (5) Dietary assessment was achieved through Food Frequency Questionnaires (FFQ) in both studies. Villegas et al (26) provided evidence of their FFQ having been validated, (21) however reported using it only 3 times within a 4.6 year timeframe, questioning the accuracy of their collected data. Bazzano et al (27) data collection was retrospective in that the FFQ was designed in 1984 and followed up at 4 year intervals. The concern with such a dated questionnaire is that it has not accounted for different trends that have occurred over time, affecting the accuracy of the results. Villegas et al (26) confirmed incidence of T2D through subjects meeting the criteria set out by the American Diabetic Association.(2) Bazzano et al (27) used criteria set out by National Diabetes Data Group for all participants up to and including 1997.(16) The Criteria for participants after 1998 was set out by the American Diabetic Association. The reason for this was due to new criteria being published at this time. (2) The main difference being the plasma glucose reading changing from 7.8mmol/l or more to 7.0mmol/l or more. (9) The Criteria Set out by the World Health Organisation in 1985, (24) could have been used to confirm incidence of T2D in the Bazzano et al (27) study . It was published 1 year after baseline data was taken and would have resulted in a higher percentage of participants being diagnosed with the same criteria, increasing consistency and reliability in the results. Villegas et al (26) reported that a higher consumption of vegetables was associated with a reduced risk of T2D. Participants who had a higher vegetable intake were also less likely to smoke and have higher levels of PA, both factors that can reduce the risk of T2D questioning the causality of the reduction in risk. (4) Participants with a higher fruit intake were also less likely to smoke and have higher levels of PA. There was no association made between fruit intake and risk of T2D therefore it is possible to consider that confounders like PA and smoking may not have effected the level of risk to T2D in this study. Bazzano et al (27) reported an inverse association between whole fruit and green leafy vegetable intake. Women who had a higher intake of fruit and vegetables were older, less likely to smoke and more likely to have higher levels of PA. Fruit Juice was positively associated with incidence of T2D which could be due to high sugar content.. (22) Also participants who had the highest fruit juice intake had the lowest levels of PA which is associated with increased risk of T2D. (20)Salas-Salvado et al (28) and Martinez-Gonzalez et al (29) both studied the risk of T2D and adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet). A MedDiet is characterised by high consumption of fruit, vegetables, whole grains, olive oil, nuts, pulses, fish and reduced consumption of red and processed meats, high fat dairy refined gains and foods high in sugar and starch. (11) Salas-Salvado et al (28) compared adherence to a MedDiet supplemented with either olive oil or nuts with a low fat diet (control group). The supplemented items in the MedDiets were given to participants. Participants in the control group were given non dietary gifts to encourage adherence. There are concerns about the ethics of using incentives and gifts in research. (6)Within this study the use of gifts appears innocuous, the concern lies with how adherence to the diet is reliably measured. When participants are given vital ingredients, this will influence their dietary intake, making it difficult generalize the results. (13) The sample population in this study were older and had at least 3 risk factors relating to cardiovascular disease again making it more difficult to generalise results. Participants were given 7 goals, including;Ã increasing vegetable and fruit consumption, reducing red and processed meat and increasing the consumption of either olive oils or nuts. The control group were asked to reduce all types of fat. Results showed that participants in the MedDiet groups had a greater reduced risk of T2D. Risk was reduced by 51% in the olive oil group and 52% in the nut group. These findings are backed up by other studies. (38-39) Diabetes incidence was lower in those who attained Ã¢â° ¥ 4 of the 7 goals. PA levels and changes in weight did not differ through all 3 groups, although the participants in the both the MedDiet groups were associated with higher levels of PA. This study was carried out on Spanish participants, who traditionally follow a MedDiet. The control group may have had a strong adherence to a MedDiet naturally, which could impact on the reliability of the results. Martinez-Gonzalez et al (29) used participants who were nurses and university graduates. Prevalence in T2D is associated with lower socioeconomic status, (1) so by using the participants from a higher socioeconomic group may bias the findings. (13) Participants were not excluded if they had Diabetes at baseline. Data was collected via FFQ which consisted of 136 items with 9 responses ranging from never to more than 6 times a day. Points were allocated to determine a score indicating level of adherence. Questions covered areas such as cooking methods, supplements and fats and oils. This FFQ goes into a lot of detail to obtain the most information it can about participants diets, increasing the validity of the data. However reliability is compromised as participants are asked to recall food intake from the previous year decreasing the accuracy of data collected. (5) The results indicated a significant reduction in risk of developing T2D in those who with strong adherence to the MedDiet after adjustment for age and sex. Participants with a score of Ã¢â° ¥ 6 had an 83% reduction. Although participants in this group had the highest levels of physical activity, which is a known factor in decreasing the risk of T2D, they also had a higher baseline prevalence for increased risk factors for Diabetes such as age higher BMI and higher blood pressure. This adds weight to the findings the MedDiet can reduce the risk of developing T2D. Fung et al (30) and VanDam et al (31) looked at more generalised dietaryÃ patterns. VanDam et al (31) used a 131 item FFQ specifying specific foods, portion sizes and frequency of intake. Over a space of 12 years data on food intake was collected 3 times. In order to make these results more reliable data collection should have occurred more frequently. The participants were all male health professionals making the sample group quite specific reducing the ability to generalise the findings to the wider population. (13) Foods were classified into groups based on nutritional profiles. Factor analysis was then applied in order to identify food patterns. Two dietary patterns were identified Prudent and Western. Prudent was characterised by high consumption of vegetables, fish and whole grains and Western by high consumption of red and processed meat, high-fat dairy and eggs. Men with higher Western patterns were younger, more likely to smoke and did less PA. Men with higher Prudent diet patterns were older less likely to smoke and engaged in more PA. The Prudent diet was associated with a modest reduction in risk in developing T2D with wholegrain foods having the highest inverse association. Fruit and vegetables were not considerably associated with reduced risk. The Western diet was associated with considerably higher risk of developing T2D. Processed meat, other processed foods and refined grains indicating the most significant association. This could indicate that cutting out specific foods could me more beneficial in reducing the risk of T2D than increasing intake of other foods. Fung et al (30) used participants from the Nurses Health Study which was established in 1976. This is the same study from which Bazzano et al (27) took their participants. The same FFQ was used in this study with baseline also being the 1984 FFQ as this was the expanded 116 item version. The information obtained was then used and classified in the same way as the VanDam et al (31) study producing the same Prudent and Western dietary patterns. The results from this study focus mainly on the Western diet pattern. Similarly to the men in the VanDam et al (31) study, women who scored high in the Western diet pattern were more likely to smoke. The results also mirrored that of the VanDam et al (31) study in that it reported an increased risk of developing T2D and a Western diet pattern. This study investigated the characteristics of the Western dietary pattern further and found positive associations between red and processed meats andÃ the development of T2D. This could also add weight to the previous comment that cutting out specific foods, such as red and processed meats could be more beneficial than adding other food groups in preventing T2D. A replica study using the same FFQ and Prudent and Western diet pattern and using a sample group that consisted of both men and women could add strength to the finds of both of these studies.(5) Diet as a tool in preventing the development of and giving greater control over the symptoms of T2D Elhayany et al (32) compared a low carbohydrate Mediterranean diet (LCM) a traditional Mediterranean diet (TM) and the 2003 American Diabetic Association diet (ADA) on health parameters. Glycemic control for people with T2D diagnosis was one of the outcome measures. Participants were randomly assigned to 1 of the 3 groups, given recommendations for daily intake on nutritional elements such as calories and protein and advised to engage in 30-45 minutes of PA a week. The LCM and TM diets included only low glycemic index carbohydrates, with LCM having a lower %. The TM and ADA diets had the same % of carbohydrates but the ADA also included mixed glycemic index carbohydrates. FFQ were used asking the participants to recall the last 24hour food intake. It is felt this data will be more accurate than those studies asking participants to recall food intake from the previous year, making results more reliable. Data was collected 3 times over a 12 month period. Results showed all groups had reduced weight and BMI with no significant difference. All 3 dietary interventions reduced factors that increase glycemic control such as HbA1c and triglyceride levels. The LCM diet was the most effective in increasing glycemic control. Esposito et al (33) compared a LCM and a low fat calorie restricted diet (LFD) on glycemic control and the delay on needing to commence antihyperglycemic medication in people newly diagnosed with T2D. The LCM diet was rich in fruit vegetables and whole grains and low in red meat. There was also a requirement that no more than 50% of calories was fromÃ carbohydrates. Complex carbohydrates rather than low GI carbohydrates were stipulated. Some complex carbohydrates can have high GI levels, which are associated with increased risk of Diabetes. (10) The LFD was based on American Heart Association guidelines. (12) Participants were randomized into 1 of 2 groups asked to keep food diaries and given guidelines on increasing physical activity. Data was collected through reviews of the diary. Food diaries could provide more reliable information than FFQ if they are filled out daily. There is still a risk that they could be filled out inaccurately, and that participants may modifies their intake as a result of keeping a diary. The study reported that both groups lost weight, but reduction was greater in the LCM. Overall there was a significant difference in the need to commence antihyperglycemic medication between the LCM and the LFD; 44% and 70% respectively. Potentially this result could have shown more significance if low GI carbohydrates were stipulated instead of complex carbohydrates. Discussion The findings coming out of this review indicate that certain dietary interventions maybe helpful in reducing the risk of developing T2D and may also help with glycemic control after diagnosis.(26-33) Some food groups and dietary patterns provide more consistent evidence than others. The results regarding fruit intake and risk of T2D are inconsistent within this review with Villegas et al (26) reporting no association between fruit and risk reduction, where as Bazzano et al (27) did. High consumption of fruit and vegetables are a major component in the Mediterranean diet and the Prudent dietary pattern, both of which were associated with an inverse association. Vegetables are more consistently associated with a reduced risk, in this review and a recent meta-analysis, (3) particularly green leafy vegetables. (27) More research studying the effects of fruit and vegetables separately is needed. This inconsistency is reflected in other studies and systematic reviews. (7) High intake of fr uit and vegetables has often been associated with higher PA levels within this review, (26-29,31) which is a risk reducing factor in itself. Part of the problem could be that many studies that look at dietary interventions are prospective cohort studies andÃ although they can provide an association they can not prove whether the cause is due to the dietary item or another factor such as PA or weight loss. More experimental designed research is needed so that a direct cause between diet and the reduction of T2D can be established. (13) While it is unclear the exact role that fruit and vegetables play in reducing the risk of T2D there is an abundance of evidence that a diet rich in fruit and vegetables is beneficial in overall health (34-35) and weight reduction, (23) so including them as part of a healthy diet may indirectly help to reduce the risk of T2D. Red and processed meat has been more consistent in its positive association to developing T2D. Fung et al (28) and VanDam et al (29) found strong associations between consumption and increased risk of T2D. One of the characteristics of The Mediterranean diet is the absence or reduction of red and processed meats, and this diet has been associated with reduced risk. These findings were backed up in a recent meta-analysis paper (18) studying 3 cohorts whos conclusion suggests that red meat consumption, particularly processed red meat is linked to higher risk of developing T2D. Meta-analysis produces level 1 evidence, providing increased confidence in the conclusions and good grounding for providing evidence based information such as dietary guidelines.(13) Diets high in red and processed meats are linked to high cholesterol (14) which is one of the leading causes of death in people with T2D (15) and other serious health conditions such as cancer and cardiovascular disease. (36) So while increasing fruit and vegetable intake may have a more beneficial and holistic effect on health, the same could be said for reducing the intake of red and processed. Salas-Salvado et al (28) produced higher level evidence being a randomised control trial giving more weight to their findings;(5) following a MedDiet can reduce the risk of T2D. One of the studies that looked at the effect of diet after diagnosis, (32) was also a randomised control trial providing the same level of evidence and weight to their findings that LCM can delay the need for hyperglycaemic medication therefore having a positive beneficial effect on T2D. Although these two studies looked at the effect of diet after diagnosis it could be reasonable to suggest that following the dietaryÃ patterns associated with these findings, prior to diagnosis could help prevent T2D as they are similar dietary patterns to two of the other studies.(28-29) While the findings from this review indicate that making changes to ones diet may help to reduce the risk of Diabetes occurring, it also suggests that implementing the same kind of dietary changes may help with glucose control after Diabetes has been diagnosed, preventing the further development of the disease and the need for antihyperglycemic medication. (32-33) One study has implied that dietary changes in the form of energy restriction can actually reverse beta cell failure and insulin resistance, symptoms found in T2D. (37) It is a very small study and the dietary intervention is severe energy restriction making it difficult to generalise to the wider population, but it is a controlled study and could provide interesting findings that further research could be built upon, that dietary interventions may be able to reverse the symptoms of T2D. Collating this information together it seems reasonable to suggest that making positive changes to dietary habits could have benefits pre and post T2D diagnosis. Dietary Guidelines The findings from the 8 studies in this review can not all be discussed in detail due to word limitation. However recurring themes seem to be occurring, providing information on which to base a set of guidelines. Going by these findings the following guidelines are recommended: Reduce intake of red meat and processed meat (all colours) Substitute these with white meats and fish Reduce intake of other processed foods Reduce intake of refined grains Reduce intake of high sugar foods and drinks including fruit juices Carbohydrate intake should be based on items with a low GI score Increase intake of olive oil Increase nut intake Increase intake of pulses Increase wholegrain intake Increase vegetable intake especially green leafy vegetables Increase fruit intake A Mediterranean style diet is characterised by much of this advise and is therefore a recommended diet style to follow. Conclusion The prevalence of T2D is growing around the world. It has been associated with many other health problems and reduces quality of life and life expectancy. It is a preventable disease and diet is one of the ways in which this disease can be combated. Dietary guidelines have been recommended from the findings of this review, based on following a Mediterranean diet, reducing intake of red and processed meats and other processed foods and increasing intake of foods such as fruit and vegetables, wholegrains and olive oils and nuts. While it has been acknowledged that more research needs to be carried out to further examine the cause and effect between diet and T2D, it is reasonable to suggest that one may find these dietary changes beneficial in helping to reduce the risk of T2D and other areas of health, possibly helping to indirectly reduce risk of T2D. It is also reasonable to suggest that a change in diet may bring beneficial changes once diagnosis has been given. Table 1 Reference list 1. Agardh E, Allenbeck P, Hallqvist J, Moadi T and Sidorchuk A. Type 2 Diabetes and Socioeconomic Position: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. International Journal of Epidemiology. 2011: 40(3) 804-818 2. American Diabetic Association Report of the Expert Committee on the Diagnosis and Classification of Diabetes Mellitus. Diabetes Care. 2000: 23(1s) 3. Carter P, Gray LJ, Troughton J, Khunti K, and Davies M. Fruit and vegetable intake and incidence of Type 2 Diabetes mellitus: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. British Medical Journal. 2010: 341:c4229 4. Davis MJ, Tringham JR, Troughton J, Kunit KK. Prevention of T2D mellitus. A review of the Evidence and its Application in a UK Setting. Diabetic Medicine. 2004: 21: 403-414 5. Gerrish K and Lacey A. The Research Process in Nursing. 2006 5th Edition. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing. 6. Grant RW and Sugarman J. Ethics in Human Subjects Research: Do Incentives Matter? Journal of Medicine and Philosophy. 2004: 29(6) 717-738 7. Hamer M, Chida Y. Intake of Fruit and Vegetables and Antioxidants and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes. A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Journal of Hypertension. 2007: 25:2361-2369 8. Hensrud DD. Dietary Treatment and Long-term Weight Loss and Maintenance in T2D. Obesity Research. 2001:9(4 supplement):348S-353S 9. Hickner RC, Brunson MA, McCammon M, Mahar MT, Garry JP, Houmard JA. Diabetic Groups as Defined by ADA and NDDG Criteria have a Similar Aerobic Capacity, Blood Pressure and Body Composition. American Diabetes Association and National Diabetes Data Group. Diabetologica. 2001: Jan 44(1) 26-32 10. Hodge AM, ODea K, English DR, and Giles GG. Glycemic Index and Dietary Fibre and the Risk of Type 2 Diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2004: 27(11) 2701-2706 11. Kastorini MC, Milionis HJ, Esposito K, Giugliano D, Goudevenos JA,Panagiotakos. The Effect of Mediterranean Diet on Metabolic Syndrome and its Components. Journal of the American College of Cardiology 2011: 57(11) 1299-1313 12. Krauss RM, Eckle RH, Howard B, Appel LJ, Daniels SR, and Deckelbaum RJ. AHA Dietary Guidelines: Revision 2000: A Statement for Healthcare Professionals from the Nutrition Committee of the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2002: 102:2284-99 13. LoBiondo-Wood G. and Haber J. Nursing Research. Methods and Critical Appraisal for Evidence Based Practice. 2006: 6th Edition. Mosby: Missouri 14. Micha R, Wallace SK, and Mozaffarian MD. Epidemiology and Prevention. Red and Processed Meat Consumption and Risk of Incident Coronary Heart Disease, Stroke and Diabetes Mellitus. A systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. American Heart Association. 2010: 121 2271-2283 15. Heart Disease and Stroke: The Nations leading Killers. At a Glance National Centre for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. Division for Heart Disease and Stroke prevention. 2011: CS217229-AI 16. National Diabetes Data Group Classifications and Diagnosis of Diabetes Mellitus and Other Categories of Glucose Intolerance. Diabetes. 1979: 28 1039-1057 17. Neild L, Summerbell CD, Hooper L, Whittaker V, Moore H. Dietary Advice for the Prevention of T2D Mellitus in Adults (Review) The Cochrane Collaboration. 2008: Wiley 18. Pan A, Sun Q, Bernstein AM, Schulze MB, Manson JE, Willett WC and Hu FB. Red Meat Consumption and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes: 3 Cohorts of US Adults and an Updated Meta-analysis. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2011: 94(4) 1088-1096 19. Shaw JE, Sicree RA, Zimmet PZ. Global Estimates of the Prevalence of Diabetes for 2010 and 2030. Diabetes Research in Clinical Practice. 2010:87:4-14 20. Sigal RJ, Kenny GP, Wasserman DH, Castaneda-Sceppa C and White RD. Physical Activity/Exercise and Type 2 Diabetes. A Consensus Statement from the American Diabetes Association. Diabetes Care. 2006: 29(6) 1433-1438 21. Shu XO, Yang G, Jin F, Liu D, Kushi L, Wen W, Gao YT, Zheng W. Validity and Reproducibility of the Food Frequency Questionnaire Used in the Shanghai WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s Health Study. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2004:58:17Ã¢â¬â23 22. Shulze MB, Manson JE, Ludwig DS, Colditz GA, Stampfer MD, Willet WC, and Hu FB. Sugar-Sweetened Beverages, Weight Gain, and Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes in Young and Middle-Aged Women. The Journal of the American Medical Association. 2004: 292(8):927-934 23. Tohill B, Seymour J, Serdula M, Kettle-Khan L, and Rolls BJ. What Epidemiological Studies Tell Us about the Relationship between Fruit and Vegetable Consumption and Body Weight. Nutrition Reviews. 2004: 365 -374 24. WHO Study Group on Diabetes Mellitus. Diabetes Mellitus: Report of a WHO Study Group. Geneva: World Health Organisation: 1985 25. NICE Public Health Guidance. Preventing Type 2 Diabetes: Population and Community Interventions. National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. 2011: Issue 35 26. Villagers R, Shu OX, Gao YT, Yang G, Elasy T, Li H and Zheng W. Vegetable but Not Fruit Consumption Reduces the Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in Chinese Women. The Journal of Nutrition. 2008: 138 574-580 27. Bazzano LA, Kamudi JJ, Hu FB, and Li TY. Intake of Fruit, Vegetables and Fruit Juices and Risk of Diabetes in Women. Diabetes Care. 2008: 31(7) 1311-1317 28. Salas-Salvado J, Bullo M, Babio N, Martinez-Gonzalez MA, Jurado NI, Basora J, Estruch R, Covas MI, Corella D, Aros F, Gutierrez VR, and Ros E. Reduction in the Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes With the Mediterranean Diet. Diabetes Care. 2011. 34:14-19 29. Martinez-Gonzalez MA, Fuente-Arrillaga CDL, Nunez-Cordoba JM, Basterra-Gotari FJ, Beunza JJ, Vazquez Z, Benito S, Tortosa A and Bes-Rasrollo M. Adherence to Mediterranean Diet and Risk of Developing Diabetes: Prospective Cohort Study. British Medical Journal. 2008: 336:1351 30. Fung TT, Schulze M, Manson JE, Willet WC, and Hu FB. Dietary Patterns, Meat Intake and the Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in Women. Archives of International Medicine. 2004:164:2235-2240 31. VanDam RM, Rimm EB, Willet WC, Stampfer MJ and Hu FB. Dietary Patterns and Risk for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in US Men. Annals of Internal Medicine. 2002:136: 201-209 32. Elhayany A, Lustman A, Abel R, Attal-Singer J and Vinker S. A Low Carborhydrate Mediterranean Diet Improves Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Diabetes Control Among Overweight Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A 1-year Prospective randomized intervention Study. Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism. 2010: 12:204-209 33. Esposito K, Maiorino IM, Ciotola M, Palo CD, Scognamiglio P, Gicchino M, Petrizzo M, Saccomanno F, Beneduce F, Ceriello A and Guigliano D. Effects of a Mediterranean-Style Diet on the Need for Antihyperglycemic Drug Therapy in Patients with Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes. Annals of Internal Medicine. 2009: 151: 306-314 34. Van Duyn MAS and Pivonka E. Over view of the health benefits of fruit and vegetable consumption for the Dietetics Professional. Journal of the American Dietetic Association. 2000: 100(12) 1511-1521 35. Anderdson JW, Baird P, Davis RH, Ferreri S, Knudtson M,Koraym A, Waters V,and Williams CL. Health Benefits of Dietary Fibre. Nutrition Reviews. 2009: 67(4) 188-205 36. Sinha R, Cross AJ, Graubaed BI, Leitzmann MF, and Schatzin A. Meat Intake and Mortality. A Prospective Study of Over Half a Million People. Archives of Internal Medicine. 2009 169(6) 562-571 37. Lim EL, Hollingsworth KG, Aribisala BS, Chen MJ, Mathers JC and Taylor R. Reversal of type 2 Diabetes: Normalisation of Beta Cell Function in Association with Decreased Pancreas and Liver Triacylglycerol. Diabetologica. 2011: 54:2506-2514 38. Jiang R, Manson JE, Stampfer MJ, Liu S, Willet WC, Hu FB. Nut and Peanut Butter Consumption and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in Women. Journal of the American Medical Association. 2002: 28(20) 2554-2560 39. Riserus U, Willet WC, and Hu FB. Dietary Fats and Prevention of Type 2 Diabetes. Progress in Lipid Research. 2009: 48(1)44-51 40. Tuomilehto J, Lindstrom J, Eriksson JG, Valle TT, Hamalainen H, Ilanne-parikka P, Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi S, Laakso M, Louheranta A, Rastas M, Salminen V and Uusitupa M. Prevention of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus by Changes in Lifestyle among Subjects with Impaired Glucose Intolerance. The New England Journal of Medicine. 2001: 344(18) 1343-1350
Wednesday, January 22, 2020
In the 1790s members of the industry in both Paris and London were working on inventions to try to mechanise paper-making. In England John Dickenson produced the cylinder machine that was operational by 1809. Although useful for smaller enterprises, this lacked the large scale potential of the machine resulting from the invention of Nicholas-Louis Robert in Paris, which had a more complicated incubation period. The last of the early improvements to this machine were financed by the Fourdrinier brothers in London, and it was after these brothers that the machine was named. The Fourdrinier could produce paper of virtually any size for the very first time, limited only by the width of the continuous wire mesh upon which the paper was made. It has been estimated that this machine could produce 40,680 14"x 18" sheets in 12 hours - the production equivalent of 8 hand-operated vats - thus reducing the price of some papers by about two-thirds. A watershed had been reached which le d to a rapid increase in other mechanical developments and improvements.The change-over to new technologies was, however, gradual. A few mills using the old hand-made methods continued to function until relatively recently. One mill, Wookey Hole in Somerset, still operates on a small scale but this is largely for tourist purposes. This is slightly counterbalanced by one or two new hand-operated mills that have opened in recent years.The scarcity of paper-making materials had been a problem from th...
Tuesday, January 14, 2020
Quality instruction is one of the major factors that contribute the fiscal impacts on the organisation. It besides has positive societal impacts on the organisational growing every bit good as the social improvement. It is normally supposed that formal schooling s one of some of import subscribers to the accomplishments of an person and to human capital. It is non the lone facet. Parents, single abilities and friends without uncertainty contribute. Schools however have a peculiar topographic point, non merely because instruction and Ã¢â¬Ëskill creative activity Ã¢â¬Ë are among their chief explicit aims, but besides because they are the factor most non-stop affected by public policies. It is good established that the distribution of personal incomes in society is strongly related to the sum of instruction people have had. Normally talking more schooling means higher life-time incomes. These results come out over the long term. It is non people Ã¢â¬Ës income while in school that is affected, nor their income in their first occupation, but their income over the class of their on the job life. Therefore, any seeable effects of the present quality of schooling on the distribution of accomplishments and income will go clear some old ages in the hereafter, when those now in school become a of import portion of the labour force. Quality Education has become an issue of importance as the landscape of instruction has been confronting uninterrupted alterations: increased international competition, increasing community and geographical diverseness of the pupil organic structure. Therefore the quality instruction is besides straight linked with the academic and fiscal growing of the organisation, here in this research scope the same standard of correlativity between the standard quality instruction and organisational growing will be tested.Chapter 1Problem & A ; Its BackgroundIntroductionA high-quality instruction provides kids and immature grownup Ã¢â¬Ës contact to the chances that we all desire for our kids. Yet supplying a quality instruction for all young person is a alarming challenge. About every state in Asia has identified educating instruction quality as one of its highest national precedence. In malice of development in reacting to the demand for increased school entree, developing more efficient national planning and policy mechanisms, and implementing immense preparation plans for instructors and decision makers, letdown persists with the potency of instruction systems to back up national economic and societal aspirations. To some extent, plans and policies naming for higher-quality schooling now supplement or even change earlier thought to such precedences as instruction development and school entree. It would look that consent is organizing that instant attending of policymakers and involved international bureaus should be focused on planing and implementing policies, plans, and actions to acquire better instruction quality. Translating the turning consensus into executable policies is a chief challenge. In all facets of the school and its environing instruction society, the rights of the whole kid, and all kids, to survival, safety, growing and engagement are at the Centre. This means that the focal point is on larning which strengthens the capacities of kids to move bit by bit on their ain behalf through the gaining of relevant cognition, utile accomplishments and suited attitudes ; and which creates for kids, and helps them make for themselves and others, topographic points of security, safety and healthy interface. Good organisation of capable affair and planning of the class are critical to student larning.Well-structured presentations, lecture-outlines, headers, subheading, and syllabi improve pupils Ã¢â¬Ë acquisition experiences. In fact, outlines displacement cognition construction. This produces non merely the prospective in pupils but besides provides a positive growing to the institute. As globalisation continues, the national and international competition for the best pupils is likely to hike among higher instruction establishments, therefore merely reenforcing force per unit area for Quality Teaching and quality confidence. It is likely that planetary rankings based on the quality of instruction will be set Forth, therefore reenforcing the personal appeal of quality enterprises. Furthermore, there are more and more pupils who study at different universities, profiting from chances like international scholarships. These pupils are likely to measure the quality of the instruction received at these diverse establishments. It is of import to mensurate the impact of the Quality Teaching enterprises in order to be able to acquire better these enterprises. However measuring the quality of one Ã¢â¬Ës instruction remains tough. This complexness may in portion explain why the two most well-known international rankings rely to a great extent on research as a yardstick of the universities Ã¢â¬Ë value and go forth aside learning quality. This may nevertheless transform in the hereafter, as the concern about learning quality and pupil acquisition are turning. The option of indexs to quantify learning quality is critical, because it has been shown that rating thrusts larning: How the instructor is judged will surely impact his or her teaching methods. Indexs to measure the instruction quality ( the value of alumnuss, satisfaction of instructors, keeping rates etc ) of an establishment proved of usage but carry a assortment of significances and can even take to misinterpretations. Research workers have the same sentiment that trusty indexs should be chosen, and non merely the most realistic 1s. Furthermore, infinite should ever be left for treatment of the figures obtained.1.2 Problem StatementÃ¢â¬Å" Low quality instruction can do spoilage to the approaching coevals every bit good as can earnestly damage the hereafter of the educational establishment which is responsible to supply the educational material to the pupils, to how much extent quality instruction plays its function in this job is portion of this research. Ã¢â¬ Background InformationOrganizational BackgroundThe Lahore Grammar School was established in January 1979 at this campus. The nationalisation of educational establishments in 1972 had led to an dismaying diminution in the crite rions of direction and services being provided in most schools and colleges.A Intervention in the kingdom of instruction was hence, critical to collar this abysmal province of personal businesss. In 1978 the Government announced that it would welcome enterprises in the educational sector.A Talking benefit of this, a group of adult females from varied professional backgrounds, including instruction, and with the shared aim of lending in this field, decided to put up a misss Ã¢â¬Ë school. A Today Lahore Grammar School provides instruction to both male childs and misss till A Ã¢â¬Ë Level.A It has extended its web to equip to the demands of the in-between income group in its Landmark Schools.A The LGS College for adult females offers a grade programme in humanistic disciplines and scientific disciplines every bit good as unmarried mans in computers.A LGS has subdivisions in Islamabad, Karachi, Quetta, Peshawar, Multan, Faisalabad, Sialkot, Gujranwala, Gujrat, Wah Cantt and.A It offers choice instruction to the small income group through the Lahore Education Society School, wholly supported and funded by LGS. A The doctrine of this establishment is a comprehensive and tolerant one and one that appreciates diverseness and stresses the significance of sentiments based on rational and informed premises instead that on superstitious notion, sentiment and deficient apprehension of issues.A Emphasis is laid on the apprehension of constructs and making a civilization of thought in the classroom.A Education is seen as a wide and complex procedure of geting cognition and apprehension. A The school has taken several enterprises in the field of instruction including the publicity of the acting humanistic disciplines that the Board of Lahore Grammar School felt were being neglected at great cost to our cultural traditions and a healthier societal surroundings. A In add-on, the General Studies plan was devised to A do pupils more cognizant of modern-day issues, both national and universe broad, and their function non merely in developing an apprehension of these issues but motivating a desire to interpret that cognition into active committedness and take stairss, where possible, to convey about positive alteration in their ain environment. LGS Lahore was the first English medium school to originate the instruction of Punjabi. This is done at the in-between degree for a lower limit of two old ages so that pupils develop an esteem of their cultural roots and a satisfaction in the rich traditions of literature and music of this state. A For those to whom it may non be a first linguistic communication an debut to a new one is non merely utile, but educative. A A critical component of their plan, other than a wide scope of academic subjects is music, dance, mime argument, play, poesy recitation, there is community service where pupils are confident to portion their accomplishments and learn from the backbones and resiliency of those less fortunate than themselves.A The pupil organic structure of LGS 55-Main Gulberg has been raising money through bake gross revenues in school to give scholarships to pupils at the Pakistan Society for the Rehabilitation of the Disabled ( PSRD ) for the past 11 years.A They have besides been traveling to help kids who are being prepared for the Matric at this institute.AProblem BackgroundIn current competitory environment of instruction in Pakistan it has become a really important for each and every educational institute or organisation to step and set up a proper quality system instruction in order to crush its challengers. How it can be done is the inquiry for which this research seeks reply.1.4 Research Q uestions & A ; Research Objective1.4.1 Research Questions:Q1: What is choice instruction? Q2: How does the quality instruction aid for organisational growing? Q3: What are different impacts of criterion and quality instruction on the overall educational system of the state every bit good as society?1.4.2Research ObjectiveTo happen out how different quality factors improve the instruction system with in the establishment every bit good as state. To happen out the relationship between quality instruction and organisational growth.. To happen out relationship between learning methodological analysiss and pupil Ã¢â¬Ës productive end product every bit good as the market repute of the several organisation.1.5 HypothesisH0: Providing quality instruction can non be a factor of organisational growing. H1: Organizational growing may depend on the factor of quality and standard educational system.1.6 Scope and Limitations of Study1.5.1 Scope of the research:The range of the research will be limited to individual organisation that is Lahore Grammar School, as being the employee of the organisation it will be easy to measure the quality processs and criterions being adopted within the organisation. Although the organisation consist of many subdivisions in the state but research will be conducted with the 200 figure of employee working in the caput office. 120 respondents will be taken as sample out of this population.1.6.2 Restrictions:Following restriction may besides be observed during the research process and methodological analysis adopted in aggregation of informations from the resources within the organisation: Researcher will be unable to near all the subdivisions of LGS. Bing a female and societal restraint, it will be hard to near physically each and every respondent of the research. As the population under survey is narrowed to 200 employees merely, therefore the graduated table of the survey is restricted. Inadequate clip may be a restraint to finish the research within a specific clip interval and research worker in this province may go through over some utile information. Limited cognition of the people may besides be a barrier for the research worker. Data will be collected by the research worker herself by agencies of questionnaire. Research worker may be biased to some extent on giving the concluding recommendations. The research worker will non be wholly comparing the criterions or quality instruction with international criterions but chief focal point will be choice criterions adopted in Pakistan. Merely a few factors of quality instruction will be taken for hypothesis attestation.1.7 Significance of ResearchThe research on the topic of quality instruction and its impact on the growing of organisation is really critical issue. The quality of instruction and preparation is considered in to be a concern of the highest political precedence. High degrees of consciousness, competences and accomplishments are considered to be the really indispensable conditions for lively citizenship, employment and societal integrity. Lifelong acquisition is an cardinal agencies of determining one Ã¢â¬Ës hereafter on a professional and personal rank, and high-quality instruction is of import in the visible radiation of labour market policies, and the free motion of workers within the state. This research will be really fruitful for the betterment of the quality instruction within the organisation every bit good as for the other establishments besides. The absence of any precise survey on quality instruction is manifested by a general deficiency of literature. It would be necessary to transport out such surveies in Pakistan with a position of understanding teacher instruction because it may non be suited to reassign findings from other surveies conducted elsewhere and generalise the findings on the Pakistan instructor instruction section. Surveies that address issues of quality instruction must be conducted in scenes where less or no surveies have been conducted at all. This could assist develop the arguments and the principal of validated research findings in the country of teacher instruction. App. roaches that are at present powerful in analyzing persons Ã¢â¬Ë professional acquisition such as action theory, should be used in order to derive from what these theories suggest to choice instruction. Importantly, qualitative enquiry and activity theory focal point on specific scenes of a professional acquisition activity under this research.1.8 Conceptual Framework of ResearchFactors of Quality EducationAcademic end product ratio of Institution Student Coaching system and methodological analysisProductive quality instructionImpact on Organizational / Institutional Growth Academic part at the community degree. Professional attitude of the instructors and direction Management subject The above conceptual frame of research is based upon some:Independent variables of research:Quality EducationDependent variables of research:Growth of organisation Organizational ProductivityTrial of Hypothesis:Both hypothesis i.e. H0 & A ; H1 will be tested after utilizing some statistical analysis of correlativity.Chapter 2Literature ReviewThe types of impacts examined in the research on the effects of educational quality on the organisational growing by and large fall into three wide classs. First, at the single degree there is a batch of research on how educational quality affects an organisational net incomes and a just sum on how educational quality affects an person Ã¢â¬Ës physical and mental wellness. While we were asked to look at how educational quality affects the organisation, persons are members of the community, their households are members of the community, and their friends are members of the community. So if educational quality of an organisation improves an person Ã¢â¬Ës economic wellbeing or physical and mental wellness, so that improves the community in which that person lives every bit good as the repute of the organisa tion to whom the single pupil has been associated with, taking it to the higher rate of growing ( Stephen J. Carroll, Ethan Scherer,2008 ) . Second, a figure of surveies look at the consequence of educational quality on facets of the Organizational growing. The four sorts of impacts most studied are organisational values, organisational repute, grosss, and competitory border. For illustration, surveies examine the association between educational quality in a school territory and the value of organisation in the country served by that school territory. Other surveies examine the relationship between educational quality in a school territory and grosss generated by that school. As these are the sorts of effects most straight related to the petition posed to us, we put most of our clip and effort into happening and reexamining surveies that examined the impacts of educational quality at this phase. Harmonizing to Feldman, ( 1989 ) and Murray, ( 1991 ) two qualities are highly linked with student achievement: expressiveness and, even more extensively, organisation. Good organisation of capable affair and planning of the class are of import to student acquisition ( Kallisson 1986 ) . Well-structured presentations, lecture-outlines, headers, subheading, and syllabi encouragement pupils Ã¢â¬Ë acquisition experiences ( Feldman 1989, Murray 1991 ) . Indeed, lineations transfer cognition construction. They can function as an progress coordinator supplying pupils with lumping schemes ( Perry and Magnusson 1989, therefore lending to more efficient acquisition.Degree of instruction as Quality Standard:In these surveies, quality, as measured, for illustration, by the high school drop-out rate or the fraction of pupils who go on to college after high school, refers to the degree of instruction attained by the pupils served by the schools. Some of the literature suggests that the degree o f educational accomplishment is itself a secondary consequence of academic success. That is, if schools do a better occupation of learning their pupils, so the pupils are more likely to finish high school, more likely to travel on to college, and so forth. So these two steps are non wholly independent ; they are interrelated. ( ( Stephen J. Carroll, Ethan Scherer,2008 ) . Surveies look at these steps at two degrees. Some surveies focus on the person. What difference does it do if a pupil Ã¢â¬Ës trial mark is higher or if the pupil completes high school instead than dropping out? In either instance, we are involved in whether the quality of an person Ã¢â¬Ës instruction affects the organisational growing. Others look at school or territory norms. Here we are interested in whether the mean quality of the instruction provided by the school or the territory makes a difference to the Organization and community every bit good. ( Stephen J. Carroll, Ethan Scherer,2008 ) There is highly powerful cogent evidence that the quality of a school or a school territory, as measured by mean trial tonss, is positively associated with Institutional growing. Research workers hypothesize that pupils are willing to pay more to analyze in a school that is served higher quality instruction, and the community is willing to pay the more to the pupils holding quality instruction as measured by the mean public presentation of the pupils go toing that school. ( Black, 1999 ; Downes and Zabel, 2002 ) . Many schools, such as Oyster School in Washington, D.C. ( Freeman, 1994, 1998 ) and La Escuela Fratney in Milwaukee, Wisconsin ( Ahlgren, 1993 ) were specially established to conflict the societal and educational favoritism of minorities. Oyster, for illustration, which was started in 1971 as a grass-roots community attempt, was said to fight for linear bilingualism and to promote all of its pupils to see each other as peers ( Freeman, 1994, 1998 ) . This school demonstrate d its committedness to this ideal by promoting the growing of minority pupils Ã¢â¬Ë native linguistic communication and civilization, utilizing a multicultural set of classs, measuring pupils with multiple, and frequently Ã¢â¬Å" alternate, Ã¢â¬ methods, and anticipating a value for diverseness within the community. Fratney ( Ahlgren, 1993 ) besides used a multicultural, anti-bias course of study, and incorporated subjects Ã¢â¬Å" emphasizing societal duty and action Ã¢â¬ ( pp. 28-29 ) where gaining to value others Ã¢â¬Ë civilizations and linguistic communications was explicitly taught. At the schoolroom degree, instructors can besides slot in multicultural positions and authenticate the pupils Ã¢â¬Ë background cognition and experiences. For illustration, one survey ( Arce, 2000 ) described a first class schoolroom where the instructor implemented a pupil entered course of study and aimed to let the pupils, construct a sense of community, and utilize the pupils Ã¢â¬Ë life experiences in the instruction procedure. Through important contemplation, the instructor developed a schoolroom feeling, every bit good as peculiar activities, that focused on doing intending through interactions and important thought. Takahashi-Breines Ã¢â¬Ës ( 2002 ) description of a 3rd class schoolroom instructor in a successful plan in New Mexico explained the same subjects. She besides illustrated how this New Mexican instructor farther improved her pupils Ã¢â¬Ë acquisition environment through the connexions she made to their past cognition, during an environment that makes unfastened mention to conveying the values and outlooks of their place and community into the schoolroom, and by making a sense of acquaintance and coherence between herself and her pupils. In another illustration of a student-centered schoolroom, Buxton ( 1999a, 1999b ) reported the findings from the Ã¢â¬Å" Science Theater/Teatro de Ciencias Ã¢â¬ undertaking in a second/third grade bipartisan category in a little Western town, where scientific discipline was taught in both English and Spanish on blinking yearss. This instructional method non merely provided chances for pupils to see, analyze, and speak about scientific discipline constructs, but besides allowed them to convey scientific discipline to their personal lives and to society as a whole. The activities were related to pupils Ã¢â¬Ë experiences and anterior cognition, and besides to issues that had societal deductions. Alternate appraisal methods, such as the usage of portfolios, allowed pupils to show both contented and lingual cognition, every bit good as their multi-linguistic consciousness during the usage of both linguistic communications. This authorising theoretical account increased the capacity o f minority pupils to associate to science and to pass on themselves in the Ã¢â¬Å" linguistic communication of scientific discipline, Ã¢â¬ therefore increasing their academic and organisational success every bit good. Another concern of importance as respects to Quality Education is that there may be different types of acquisition and instruction. Marton and Saljo ( 1976 ) found that pupils larning attacks are of two kinds: the Ã¢â¬Å" deep attack Ã¢â¬ which focuses on understanding the class affair and the Ã¢â¬Å" surface attack Ã¢â¬ which focuses on memorising the stuff itself. Furthermore, pupils Ã¢â¬Ë attacks to analyze are influenced by the pupils Ã¢â¬Ë construct of acquisition ( Van Rossum & A ; Schenk, 1984 ) . Sheepard and Gilbert Ã¢â¬Ës ( 1991 ) found that pupils Ã¢â¬Ë point of view about the composing of cognition in a subject were influenced by their lectors Ã¢â¬Ë theories of instruction and by the pupils Ã¢â¬Ë perceptual experience of the acquisition atmosphere. Teachers Ã¢â¬Ë instruction methods are associated to their construct of what the nucleus of instruction is. Kember & A ; Kwan ( 2000 ) stress that professors have one type of learning attack, content-centred or learning-centred. Because of this attack, they execute different types of learning schemes. Differences lay in coaching, focal point, appraisal, adjustment for pupil features, beginning of acquaintance and cognition. Teachers who adopt a content-centred attack see learning chiefly as the conductivity of cognition. Those who have the learning-centred attack are more likely to see instruction as Ã¢â¬Å" larning facilitation Ã¢â¬ . The OECD ( 2006 ) has developed four possible scenarios for the mentality of quality instruction. These scenarios were constructed by taking into history two cardinal variables, the extent of globalisation ( local-global ) and the sum of influence of province authorities ( administration-market ) . The scenarios reference for case the dividing up between learning and research universities or the sweetening of engineering that might hold an indirect but inclusive impact on learning. Globalization and other planetary alterations make reforms necessary for universities worldwide. In 2006 in Athens, the Education Ministers of the OECD zone have identified six countries in which establishments and authoritiess should prosecute in serious reforms Ã¢â¬â to do higher instruction non merely Ã¢â¬Å" bigger Ã¢â¬ but besides Ã¢â¬Å" better Ã¢â¬ ( Giannakou, OECD, 2006 ) . These reforms be rational responses to alter in the countries of Funding, More indifferent instruction, Research and invention, Migration and internationalisation. The two other reforms which were deemed necessary concern learning quality. Indeed, the first reform suggested was to develop a Ã¢â¬Å" cagey focal point on what pupils learn Ã¢â¬ in universities. The second was to advance reforms that would increase inducements to do establishments more accountable for quality and results ( OECD,2006. )Chapter 3Methods and ProceduresMethodology of StudyIn order to reply the research inquiries mentioned in chapter 1, research workers will lucubrate here the different picks of methodological analysis that have been adopted in this research paper. The purpose of thesis is instead explorative as the research worker tends to explicate the Impact of Quality Education on the growing of the institutions.. The research worker will be to some extent descriptive because it is indispensable to hold a clear image about the subject on which researcher want to roll up informations. The research aim will be evidently controlled. Besides it is explorative because it will be analyzing a relationship between the variables of the research that is choice instruction and growing rate of the organisation. A quantitative ( based on study ) analysis will be conducted by utilizing questionnaire method.Research SamplingSurvey Instrument usedQuestionnaire to be used in the research is attached herewith ( see app. endix ) . Likert graduated table will be adopted to roll up and measure the information on this instrument to measure the relationship between the variables.Sampling TechniqueConvenient trying method will be used in this respects because of limited attack and range of the research.3.2.3 Sample Size & A ; PopulationThe sample size out of the 200 population is 120 employees taken as respondents ( sample ) .Data CollectionAs mentioned above the informations will be collected by utilizing the study instrument ( questionnaire ) , and from the bing researches available in published signifier by the old research workers. This primary informations will be analysed to explicate the research worker point of position on the topic of the research.Research ToolsThe tools that will be used in the research for the information analysis is SPSS package to cipher, Mean, Standard divergence, correlativity.Chapter 4Data Analysis and RepresentationDatas AnalysisIn his chapter information related to informations an alysis with proper account of processed informations in the SPSS, incorporating informations tabular arraies and graphical representation.Chapter 5Decision, Findings & A ; RecommendationsIn this subdivision concluding decisions of the survey, research worker Ã¢â¬Ës ain findings out of the research and shutting recommendations will be mentioned. Mentions Aasen, P. & A ; Stensaker, B. ( 2007 ) , Ã¢â¬Å" Balancing trust and technocracy? : leading preparation in higher instruction Ã¢â¬ ; International Journal of Educational Management ; Vol. 21, No. 5, pp. . 331-83 Altbach, P. ( 2006 ) , Ã¢â¬ The Dilemmas of Ranking Ã¢â¬ . , the Boston College Center for International Higher Education, International Higher Education, Vol. 42. Astin, A. & A ; Chang, M.J. ( 1995 ) , Ã¢â¬Å" Colleges that stress research and instruction Ã¢â¬ , Change, Vol.27, No.5, pp. . 44-49 Barnett, R. ( 2003 ) , Beyond all ground: Life with Ideology in the University, SRHE/OUP, Buckingham Barrie, S.C & A ; Prosser, M. ( 2002 ) , Ã¢â¬Å" Aligning research on pupil larning with institutional policies and patterns on rating and quality confidence Ã¢â¬ , Paper presented at the 11th ISL Conference, Brussels, 4-6 Barrie, S.C. , Ginns, P. and Prosser M. ( 2005 ) , Ã¢â¬Å" Early impact and results of institutionally aligned, pupil focused larning position on learning quality confidence Ã¢â¬ , Assessment & A ; Evaluation in Higher Education, Vol.30, No.6, pp. . 641-656 Bass, R. ( 1998 ) , Ã¢â¬Å" The Scholarship of Teaching: What Ã¢â¬Ës the Problem? Ã¢â¬ Inventio, Vol. 1, No.1 1998-1999 Bauer, M. & A ; Henkel, M ( 1997 ) , Ã¢â¬Å" Responses of Academe to Quality Reforms in Higher instruction: A Comparative Study of England and Sweden Ã¢â¬ , Tertiary Education and Management, Vol.3, No.3, pp. .211-228 Beatty, R.W. & A ; Ulrich, D.O. ( 1991 ) , Ã¢â¬Å" Re-energizing the Mature Organization Ã¢â¬ , Organizational Dynamics, Vol.20, pp. .16-30 Benowski, K. ( 1991 ) , Ã¢â¬Å" Restoring the pillars of higher instruction Ã¢â¬ , Quality Progress, October, pp. .37-42 Bergquist, W. ( 1992 ) , The Four civilizations of the Academy, Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, CA Biggs, J. ( 2001 ) , Ã¢â¬Å" The brooding establishment: assuring and heightening the quality of instruction and acquisition Ã¢â¬ , Higher Education, Vol.41, No.3, pp. .221-238 Bingham, R & A ; Ottewill, R. ( 2001 ) , Ã¢â¬Å" Whatever happ. ened to peer reappraisal? Revitalizing the part of coachs to class rating Ã¢â¬ , Quality Assurance in Education, Vol.9, No.1, pp. .22-39 Feldman, K.A. ( 1976 ) , Ã¢â¬Å" Grades and college pupils Ã¢â¬Ë ratings of their classs and instructors Ã¢â¬ , Research in Higher Education, Vol.4 Feldman, K.A. ( 1976b ) , Ã¢â¬Å" The superior college instructor from the pupils Ã¢â¬Ë position Ã¢â¬ , Research in Higher Education, Vol.5, pp. .243-288 Feldman, K.A. ( 1989 ) , Ã¢â¬Å" The association between pupil evaluations of specific instructional dimensions and pupil accomplishment: Refining and widening the Synthesis of informations from multisection cogency surveies Ã¢â¬ , Research in Higher Education, Vol.30, pp. .583- 645 Frackmann, E. ( 1992 ) Ã¢â¬Å" The German experience Ã¢â¬ In Craft, A. ( erectile dysfunction ) , Quality Assurance in Higher Education: Proceedings of an International Conference, Hong Kong, 1991. London: The Falmer Press Giannakou, M. ( 2006 ) , Minister of National Education and Religious Affairs, Greece ; Ã¢â¬Å" Drumhead by the chair Ã¢â¬ , Meeting of OECD Education curates, 27-28 June 2006, Athens Gibbs, G. ( 1995 ) , Ã¢â¬Å" The Relationship between Quality in Hanushek E. , Kain J. , Rivkin, S. ( 1999 ) , Ã¢â¬Å" Do higher wages buy better instructors? Ã¢â¬Å" , NBER Hirsch, E. ( 2001 ) , Ã¢â¬Å" Teacher Recruitment ; Staffing Classrooms with Quality Teachers Ã¢â¬ , State Higher Education Executive Officers Kember, D. & A ; Kwan, KP. ( 2000 ) , Ã¢â¬Å" Lecturers Ã¢â¬Ë App. roaches to Teaching and their Relationship to Conceptions of Good Teaching Ã¢â¬ , Instructional Science, Vol.28, pp. .469-490 Marginson, S. & A ; Van der Wende, M. ( 2007 ) , Globalisation and Higher Education, OECD, Education Working Paper No 8. Marton F. and Saljo R. ( 1976 ) , Ã¢â¬Å" On qualitative differences in acquisition, result and procedure Ã¢â¬ , British Journal of Educational Psychology, Vol. 46, pp. .4-11 Schonwetter D.J, Clifton R.A. and Perry, R.P. ( 2002 ) , Ã¢â¬Å" Contented acquaintance: Differential Impact of Effective Teaching on Student Achievement Outcomes Ã¢â¬ , Research in Higher Education, Vol.43, No.6 Scott, P. ( 1998 ) , Massification, Internationalisation and Globalisation, in Scott, P. ( Ed ) , The Globalisation of Higher Education, SHRE / Open University Press, Buckingham Shepp. ard, C. & A ; Gilbert, J. ( 1991 ) , Ã¢â¬Å" Course design, learning method and pupil epistemology Ã¢â¬ , Higher Education, Vol.22, pp. .229-249 Stephenson, F. ( 2001 ) , Extraordinary instructors: The Essence of Excellent Teaching, Andrews McMeel Publishing, Kansas City Van der Wende, M.C. ( 2007 ) , Ã¢â¬Å" Internationalization of Higher Education in the OECD states: Challenges and Opp. ortunities for the Coming Decade Ã¢â¬ , Journal of Studies in International Education, Vol.11, No.34 Winter Argyris, C. & A ; Schon, D. ( 1974 ) , Theory in Practice: Increasing Professional Effectiveness, Jossey Bass, San Francisco, CA
Monday, January 6, 2020
To make the student excel in his or her scholastic aims, supporting the fact that active participation in university life may lead academic success. Regardless of the numerous positive results of active participation are achieved, certain negative aspects have surfaced regarding the success of international students based on their active participation. The fact that international students have migrated from their hometowns in search of quality education may face verbal insults, negative stereotypes, or -detect discrimination tend to feel more depressed (p. 107) as per the Glass Westmont (2014) study. International students, if enhance their participation in learning activities and become renowned in their circle, the home students of a particular university may feel threatened academically and culturally. Thus they are made to face insults, abuse and stereotyping more often than others. However, later in the article, Glass Westmont themselves reveal how the students (especially C hinese) tend to become resilient to the method of treatment for them and instead undergo the process of acculturation occurs as well (p. Thus it may be reiterated that even though international students undergo more mental trauma than home students are likely to, it does not hamper their active participation and academic success of the students. In conclusion, it can be restated that because of the fact that university learning can be facilitated by active participation in any of the events of the university. We will write a custom essay sample on Factors of Academic Success for International Students or any topic specifically for you Only $17.96 $11.86/pageorder now Moreover, it is required for international students to have a companion such as friends or a sibling or spouse either enrolled with them or living nearby as it would enhance the social likeability of the students. These, coupled with other interactive methods of learning increases the possibility of academic success. Nonetheless, some people are of the opinion that it might be hazardous for young children, especially girls, and thus only some parents allow their children to travel on their own as line as its destructive.